Keynote Speaker 專題演講

Keynote Speech 專題演講.

Western Tonalities and Korean Breath: Children’s Songs of Colonial Korea

西方音調與韓國氣息:日治朝鮮時期的兒歌

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Abstract 摘要

In the 1920s, colonial Korean children had different opportunities, venues, and materials, to sing. Newly established missionary schools adapted hymns for children, and the colonial schools run by the Japanese regime considered song time to be essential to children’s emotional and intellectual development. It is from this diverse ecology of musical offerings that original Korean sung poems, or tongyo, emerged. Tongyo were short poems written by often prominent writers that were then set to music by Korean composers, many of whom studied Western music in Japan. Tongyo composers wrote works that, unlike Christian hymns (ch’ansongga) and Japanese school songs (changga), were written in the Korean language and were intended for Korean voices but were structured by what was then novel Western musical conventions. Through an analysis tongyo by two seminal figures, Yun Kŭgyŏng and Chŏng Sunch’ŏl, this paper illuminates the musical grammar by which Yun and Chŏng re-oriented the sensibilities of their young singers. What this comparison reveals are the challenges of fitting western tonalities to the Korean language, thereby questioning the prevalent assumption that tongyo were national forms whose value hinges on their effortless communication of authentic Korea emotions. 

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在1920年代,日治朝鮮兒童擁有各種不同的機會、場所和材料來唱歌。當時新成立的教會學校會為兒童改編聖詩,同時日本殖民政權開辦的學校認為歌唱時間對於兒童的情感和智力發展極為重要。正是在這多樣化的音樂生態下,誕生了韓國原創詩歌,或謂童謠(tongyo)。童謠(tongyo)這類的短詩通常是由著名作家所寫,再由韓國作曲家為其譜曲,其中有許多作曲家都曾在日本受過西方音樂教育。韓國童謠與基督教聖詩(ch’ansongga)和日本校歌(changga)不同之處在於,童謠是用韓語寫成,目的在作為韓國之聲,然而其結構卻是依循對當時韓國人而言新穎的西方音樂傳統。本演講將藉由分析兩位重要作家尹克榮和鄭順哲的童謠作品,闡述兩人如何透過音樂語法重塑兒童歌者的感受性。透過兩者的比較,從中可以看出將西方音調與韓語融合的困難度,從而對普遍認定童謠就其形式與價值而言乃為民族的,可以輕易傳達出真實的韓國情感此一說法提出質疑。

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Speaker 講者

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Dafna Zur is an Associate Professor in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures and the Director of the Center for East Asian Studies at Stanford University where she teaches courses on Korean literature, cinema, and popular culture. Her book, Figuring Korean Futures: Children’s Literature in Modern Korea (Stanford University Press, 2017), traces the investments and aspirations made possible by children’s literature in colonial and postcolonial Korea. She is working on a new project on science and literature in Cold War North and South Korea. She has published articles on North Korean popular science and science fiction, North Korean translations, the Korean War in North and South Korean children’s literature, childhood in cinema, and Korean popular culture. Her translations of Korean fiction have appeared in wordwithoutborders.orgThe Columbia Anthology of Modern Korean Short Stories, and the Asia Literary Review.

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周多喜教授是史丹佛大學東亞語言與文化系副教授暨東亞研究中心主任,開設韓國文學、電影與流行文化等課程。學術專書Figuring Korean Futures: Children’s Literature in Modern Korea(2017年史丹佛大學出版社出版)探討日治朝鮮時期與後殖民時期對於兒童文學的種種投注與抱負。新近研究聚焦冷戰時期南北韓的科學與文學,文章發表含括北韓的科普與科幻小說研究、北韓文章翻譯、南北韓兒童文學中的韓戰書寫、電影和韓國流行文化中的童年。韓文小說翻譯作品發表於wordwithoutborder.org, The Columbia Anthology of Modern Korean Short Stories(哥倫比亞現代韓國短篇小說選集)以及 Asia Literary Review(亞洲文學評論)。

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